Federal Securities Law: Covered Securities
NSMIA which pre-empts state securities qualification requirements, defines "covered securities" to distinguish the securities that receive the benefits of this de facto state exemption.
"Covered securities" does not encompass all Regulation D transactions, only those that are specifically under Rule 506. Rule 506 of Regulation D is considered a "safe harbor" promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission specifically promulgated in connection with the private offering exemption contemplated by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act. Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act (formerly Section 4(2) but redesignated Section 4(a)(2) by the JOBS Act) provides an exemption from the provisions of Section 5 of the Securities Act for "transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering." In comparison, Rule 504 and Rule 505 are each considered to be promulgated under Section 4(a)(5) of the Securities Act (formerly Section 4(5) but redesignated Section 4(a)(5) by the JOBS Act), an exemptive authority given to the SEC in the Securities Act particularly for offerings under $5 million.
NSMIA provides in relevant part as follows:
‘‘(b) COVERED SECURITIES.—
For purposes of this section, the following are covered securities:
‘‘(1) EXCLUSIVE FEDERAL REGISTRATION OF NATIONALLY TRADED SECURITIES.—A security is a covered security if such security is—
‘‘(A) listed, or authorized for listing, on the New York Stock Exchange or the American Stock Exchange, or listed on the National Market System of the Nasdaq Stock Market (or any successor to such entities);
‘‘(B) listed, or authorized for listing, on a national securities exchange (or tier or segment thereof) that has listing standards that the Commission determines by rule (on its own initiative or on the basis of a petition) are substantially similar to the listing standards applicable to securities described in subparagraph (A); or
‘‘(C) is a security of the same issuer that is equal in seniority or that is a senior security to a security described in subparagraph (A) or (B).
‘‘(2) EXCLUSIVE FEDERAL REGISTRATION OF INVESTMENT COMPANIES.—A security is a covered security if such security is a security issued by an investment company that is registered, or that has filed a registration statement, under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
‘‘(3) SALES TO QUALIFIED PURCHASERS.—A security is a covered security with respect to the offer or sale of the security to qualified purchasers, as defined by the Commission by rule. In prescribing such rule, the Commission may define the term ‘qualified purchaser’ differently with respect to different categories of securities, consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors.
‘‘(4) EXEMPTION IN CONNECTION WITH CERTAIN EXEMPT OFFERINGS.—A security is a covered security with respect to a transaction that is exempt from registration under this title pursuant to—
‘‘(A) paragraph (1) or (3) of section 4, and the issuer of such security files reports with the Commission pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;
‘‘(B) section 4(4);
‘‘(C) section 3(a), other than the offer or sale of a security that is exempt from such registration pursuant to paragraph (4) or (11) of such section, except that a municipal security that is exempt from such registration pursuant to paragraph (2) of such section is not a covered security with respect to the offer or sale of such security in the State in which the issuer of such security is located; or
‘‘(D) Commission rules or regulations issued under section 4(2), except that this subparagraph does not prohibit a State from imposing notice filing requirements that are substantially similar to those required by rule or regulation under section 4(2) that are in effect on September 1, 1996.
‘‘(c) PRESERVATION OF AUTHORITY.—
‘‘(1) FRAUD AUTHORITY.—Consistent with this section, the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State shall retain jurisdiction under the laws of such State to investigate and bring enforcement actions with respect to fraud or deceit, or unlawful conduct by a broker or dealer, in connection with securities or securities transactions.
‘‘(2) PRESERVATION OF FILING REQUIREMENTS.—
‘‘(A) NOTICE FILINGS PERMITTED.—Nothing in this section prohibits the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State from requiring the filing of any document filed with the Commission pursuant to this title, together with annual or periodic reports of the value of securities sold or offered to be sold to persons located in the State (if such sales data is not included in documents filed with the Commission), solely for notice purposes and the assessment of any fee, together with a consent to service of process and any required fee.
‘‘(B) PRESERVATION OF FEES.—
‘‘(i) IN GENERAL.—Until otherwise provided by law, rule, regulation, or order, or other administrative action of any State, or any political subdivision thereof, adopted after the date of enactment of the Capital Markets Efficiency Act of 1996, filing or registration fees with respect to securities or securities transactions shall continue to be collected in amounts determined pursuant to State law as in effect on the day before such date.
‘‘(ii) SCHEDULE.—The fees required by this subparagraph shall be paid, and all necessary supporting data on sales or offers for sales required under subparagraph (A), shall be reported on the same schedule as would have been applicable had the issuer not relied on the exemption provided in subsection (a).
‘‘(C) AVAILABILITY OF PREEMPTION CONTINGENT ON PAYMENT OF FEES.—
‘‘(i) IN GENERAL.—During the period beginning on the date of enactment of the National Securities Market Improvement Act of 1996 and ending 3 years after that date of enactment, the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State may require the registration of securities issued by any issuer who refuses to pay the fees required by subparagraph (B).
‘‘(ii) DELAYS.—For purposes of this subparagraph, delays in payment of fees or underpayments of fees that are promptly remedied shall not constitute a refusal to pay fees.
‘‘(D) FEES NOT PERMITTED ON LISTED SECURITIES.—Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), no filing or fee may be required with respect to any security that is a covered security pursuant to subsection (b)(1), or will be such a covered security upon completion of the transaction, or is a security of the same issuer that is equal in seniority or that is a senior security to a security that is a covered security pursuant to subsection (b)(1).
‘‘(3) ENFORCEMENT OF REQUIREMENTS.—Nothing in this section shall prohibit the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State from suspending the offer or sale of securities within such State as a result of the failure to submit any filing or fee required under law and permitted under this section. ...."[emphasis added]